Stories are as old as language, as old as the most punctual social orders. A couple of the most punctual stories even endure: those told in pictorial structure on dividers of collapse Lascaux, in France or in the Mpongweni Mountains in Lesotho. Also, others have come down to us on the planet’s fantasies and fables to which we currently approach on the printed age. Narrating is more established than printing, more seasoned than composing, and the principal stories to be set down on paper, papyrus or material were not crafted by those creators but rather records of the oral conventions of past hundreds of years. In Sierra Leone all things considered in most African nations narrating is a necessary piece of the nation’s life albeit oral conventions have to a great extent respected the composed word.
We learn as we live while we are kids, youngsters and grown-ups. Learning isn’t limited to the homeroom alone: it can happen anyplace. Virtues and social standards, convictions and codes must be transmitted from age to the following, regardless of whether changed or not. Casual learning settings are pertinent and may be prevailing even today when progressively formalized and explicit organizations have mostly dominated.
While Sierra Leoneans protect themselves against their past the two educationists and bookkeepers see a great deal in narrating that could be utilized as establishment to situate and build up the youthful in the educational system. There are numerous signs that an enormous wealth of conventional instructional method in regard to the standards, substance, strategies and institutional game plans existed and still exist in Sierra Leone. Story tellers, their accounts and tunes, precepts and conundrums are as yet significant resources and subjects for indigenous learning and training. Oral conventions don’t just pass the mores and principles of a general public. They set out to clarify the world and conduct of the individuals in it. Oral customs offer records of how the world started and these creation fantasies are part likewise of the Holy Books of all the world’s for some time set up religions, for example, Christianity and Islam. Additionally clarified in metaphorical terms is all human conduct where great doesn’t generally triumph over insidiousness.
Stories which don’t rely upon writing thus don’t rely upon education. They can arrive at all of the network and their intelligent quality is itself power, for it encourages the elements of stories in social guidance, what Leeson (1985) called “passing on the nation’s shared astuteness and qualities to the people to come.” Sadly there is a missing connection in Sierra Leone as school going youngsters are all around familiar with the narratives of Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada and Italy to refer to a couple of models yet know next to no about their conventional stories.
Narrating IN SIERRA LEONE
Sierra Leone includes sixteen (16) ethnic gatherings. The biggest of these is the Mende found in the Southern and Eastern Provinces. By them in number is the Temne in the North. The third biggest gathering is the Limba, additionally in the Northern Province, trailed by the Kono in the Eastern Province. There’s the Koranko in the North just as the Yalunka, Loko, Soso, Madingo and Fula. On the coast, North and South are the Bullom and Sherbro followed by the a lot littler gatherings of Krim, Vai and Gola, with the Kissi further inland in the Eastern Province. The Western Area, including Freetown, is increasingly blended in populace, yet is essentially the home of the Creole gathering. In all these ethnic gatherings narrating is basic as a feature of their way of life.
Ogutu and Roscoe (1974) had this to state about narrating in Africa: “The mainland has its own fiction customs; it has the convention of narrating, described orally… the medium through which Africa during the time has opened up about its inner self, showed its kin and engaged itself” (pp. 43-44).
Customary stories in Sierra Leone are seen as exemplification of the convictions, customs, ceremonies and structures of society that should be kept up. Stories work inside society to protect adjustment to the acknowledged social standards of progression from age to age through their job in training and the degree to which they reflect culture. Most customary storytellers guarantee to determine their specialty through dreams, spirits, and apprenticeship to proficient storytellers; others guarantee to obtain the craftsmanship legitimately from God while some state they paid to secure it. Storytellers have the accompanying highlights:
• Fluency in the nearby language and dominance of a wide scope of jargon for all degrees of crowds;
• Creativity and capacity to set up affinity with their crowds;
• Knowledge of their crowds and their needs;
• Familiarity with and capacity to allude to their way of life and condition to breath life into their accounts and make them offer to their crowd;
• Good memory of exact maintenance and portrayal of an enormous corpus of material; and
The substance of customary stories can be assembled into:
• Myths-stories tinted with religion, superstition and customary convictions particularly about the birthplaces of humanity and marvels;
• Legends-tales about chronicled occasions and paramount individuals, for example, war saints, extraordinary drug men and movement;
• Fiction-nonexistent stories arranged into purposeful anecdote, tales, dream and illustrations.
These can be additionally grouped by social capacity or establishment in particular:
• Political stories-anecdotes about administration and the connection among pioneers and their subjects;
• Tribe stories-these uncover the structures, families and networks for example marriage and family histories;
• Religion and gods tales about creation and marvels, for example, demise and downpour;
• Moral excellencies stories planned to criticize such indecencies as pride, insatiability, burglary, murder, deceptive nature, stupidity and absence of knowledge;
• Economics-stories that manage work, getting and loaning, innovation and sluggishness.
Characters in common conventional Sierra Leonean stories run from individuals to creatures, stones, trees, plants, gods, spirits and winged animals. These characters are emblematic: Bra bunny dishonesty; tortoise-shrewdness; elephant-honorability; vulture-persistence; lion-courage and quality; sparrow, parrot and crow-knowledge; dove favorable luck; bug crafty. Stories are told only for night stimulations. Some of the time narrating sessions could be whenever of the day with crowds in private verandahs, ‘court barries’ or other open spots. Be that as it may, the customary setting where twenty to forty individuals sit together around a lamp fuel light or fire around evening time following full time work is done and nourishment has been cooked and eaten. Storytellers are likewise welcome to social capacities, for example, weddings, entombments, mystery society festivities and delegated functions. Tobacco is regularly accommodated without smoking narrating thoughts won’t stream.
Stories go together with melodies; a tune begins a story; a significant line in a story makes up another story; an axiom closes a story; a tune in a story is utilized to wake up audience members or to get ready for the coming peak. All the time tunes do welcome cooperation, and audience members become dynamic supporters of a tune, applauding, coming to untruths and jokes of the story teller, who thus answers the remarks regularly with another story. Melodies are supported by the pounding of conventional instruments like ‘kaylain’, ‘sira’ ‘seigureh’ and ‘sangba’ (nearby drum) to include musicality. Narrating crowd is typically dynamic. It catalyzes the stories by unconstrained outcries, inquiries to the storyteller, resounding of the storyteller’s voice, and participating in the singing of themes. For all these to occur discipline is kept up. The crowd is made to snicker and shout however without imperiling the continuation of the portrayal.
SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF TRADITIONAL STORIES
Premier is socialization. The recounting and tuning in of stories is a social movement that unites individuals to partake in imaginative and innovative issue. The event is intended to engage with the goal that individuals could overlook the drudgery of day by day life. Individuals are transplanted to a universe of make-conviction. As the portrayal experiences the subtleties of reproducing the anecdotal world the crowd is conveyed along like travelers on a flight. The pleasure inferred is encouraged by the social association of the crowd. The air is commonly casual with no compulsion or badgering; everybody is on equivalent balance paying little heed to sexual orientation and age.
Members get an opportunity to describe and tune in. The circumstance underscores the estimation of social participation. The order innate in the portrayal is unavoidably changed to circles of life. Members figure out how to regard others, acknowledge individual contrasts in capacities and disposition and have the option to relate in a typical action.
Mental incitement is gotten from narrating. Stories are told and got through the ear. The interest they place on the storyteller is to recollect the story and tell it for a potential retelling in future. This is acceptable preparing for the memory. One must be mindful to get the basics of a story and acclimatize it into collection. In this manner the mind must be extremely dynamic to oblige the new information or assortments of what is now known. Just as preparing of memory the stories hone basic appreciation. One needs to examination the message of the account and assesses the occasions related.
Stories are told for the wellbeing of their own as well as have significant bits of social guidance to bestow. The purposeful anecdotes of occasions and characters ponder human life and are a wellspring of learning. In the characters of stories the crowd will see lethargy, sages, quitters, fomenters and the pompous to refer to yet a couple of models. Stories give implies with respect to how to respond to them. The stories give rules on what is cherishable. At the end of the day they try to change life.